How much does it cost to repair a water heater?
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Water Heater Repair Cost Guide
Updated: Jan 01, 1970
A water heater is essential for any home, helping to heat the water you use for baths, showers, cooking, and cleaning too. Countless people rely on their water heaters every day. These devices play vital roles in allowing families to live safe and comfortable lives. Unfortunately, many issues can arise with water heaters as time goes by, from leaky valves to broken thermostats. When water heater problems arise, it’s vital to get professional repairs as soon as possible.
The average cost for water heater repair is $150 to $750. Most people pay around $450 for getting their tank flushed to remove mineral deposits. The costs can be much higher or lower, depending on the precise nature of the problem. Fixing a leaky valve can be done for just $50, while getting a new tank fitted may cost up to $2,000.
Water Heater Repair Cost
|Hot Water Heater Repair Cost|
|National average cost||$450|
Water Heater Repair Cost by Power Source
Water heaters can have various power sources, and different problems can arise depending on the type you have in your home. For instance, a solar water heater has different parts than a propane water heater, so different repairs and replacements may be required. This impacts the price of your water heater repairs too. The table below shows some common types of water heaters by power source, along with the average repair costs for each one:
|Type of Machine||Average Repair Costs (Labor Included)|
|Electric||$100 - $650|
|Gas||$150 - $750|
|Propane||$150 - $750|
|Solar||$150 - $900|
Electric Water Heater Repair
The average cost for electric water heater repair is between $100 and $650. Electric heaters tend to be the cheapest option when it comes to initial costs and installation. They're also often the cheapest type of water heater to repair. Common issues in electric water heaters include problems with thermostats, heating elements, and valves.
Gas Water Heater Repair
Homeowners can expect to pay between $150 and $750 for gas water heater repairs. Gas water heaters function mostly the same way as electric heaters. However, they have a few different components where issues might arise, such as the burner, gas control valves, the anode rod, or even the tank.
Propane Water Heater Repair
If you need to get a propane water heater repaired, you will usually have to pay between $150 and $750. Propane water heaters are simply a type of gas water heater. The repair costs are the same, and the possible issues these heaters may encounter are identical. Like gas heaters, propane heaters might suffer from valve problems or issues affecting other components such as the tank.
Solar Water Heater Repair
Repairs for solar water heaters cost between $150 and $900. Solar water heaters are often among the most expensive water heaters to install and repair. They have many more costly components than other types of heaters. Issues can arise with the entire solar water heater system, including the panels and collector area and the tank itself.
Water Heater Repair Cost by Type of Machine
We can also divide water heaters into different categories based on their type. There are classic tank models in which heated water is stored in a large tank, ready for use around the home, and modern tankless equivalents. There are also hybrid systems and storage water heaters. The repair costs for each type differ due to the different parts used. The table below shows some water heater types and average repair costs for each one.
|Type of Machine||Average Repair Costs (Labor Included)|
|Tankless||$100 - $650|
|Tank||$150 - $750|
|Hybrid||$150 - $900|
Tankless Water Heater Repair
Tankless water heater repairs should cost between $100 and $650. You can expect to pay between $100 and $600 for electric tankless water heater repairs and between $150 and $650 for gas tankless water heater repairs. Tankless water heaters tend to be the cheapest kind to repair because there’s no tank, so there’s no risk of cracks or tank problems. All of the components are usually very easy to access.
Tank Water Heater Repair
Homeowners can expect to pay between $150 and $750 for tank water heater repairs, with around $150 to $650 for electric and $175 to $750 for gas. Tank water heaters are found in many homes and are quite affordable to buy and install, but issues might arise with the tank itself. These problems can be quite expensive to fix.
Hybrid Water Heater Repair
The average cost of hybrid water heater repairs is between $150 and $900. Hybrid water heaters, or hybrid heat pumps, are highly efficient at heating a home. But they're very large, with many parts that can all encounter problems, including the heat pump, coils, and compressor. These models usually cost more to fix than a simple tank or tankless heaters.
Water Heater Repair Cost by Type of Repair
One important factor that impacts the cost of your water heater repairs is the type of repair required. Water heaters encounter a wide range of problems. Some are much simpler and cheaper to fix than others. The table below shows some examples of common heater problems, along with the average repair costs for each one.
|Type of Repair||Average Repair Costs (Labor Included)|
|Valve||$75 - $150|
|Thermostat||$75 - $150|
|Pilot Light||$75 - $175|
|Hose||$75 - $200|
|Circuit Breaker||$100 - $225|
|Tank||$250 - $1,000|
|Cylinder||$250 - $1,000|
Water Heater Valve Repair
Getting a valve repaired on your water heater should cost between $75 and $150. Various valves may be situated around your water heater, including the pressure relief valve, drain valve, and shut-off valve. They're all very similar and may crack or leak but may only need readjusting or patching to prevent any water dripping out.
Water Heater Thermostat Repair
Repairing a thermostat in a water heater can cost between $75 and $150. The thermostat is a vital component of any water heater, as it helps monitor and control the temperature of the water. Broken thermostats can lead to water heaters overheating or failing to heat up at all. They may simply need to be rewired or adjusted if they have fallen out of position.
Water Heater Pilot Light Repair
Repairs for a water heater pilot light should cost between $75 and $175. If you notice that your gas water heater has suddenly stopped working, the pilot light might be to blame. The pilot light is a flame that lights up the burner of the heater. The thermocouple may need readjusting, or the light might simply need to be re-lit by a professional to fix the issue.
Water Heater Hose Repair
Repairing a water heater hose should cost between $75 and $200. Hot water hoses are also known as supply lines, transporting water to the tank. Hoses are designed to be strong and stable but might wear down over time. Some Teflon tape might be applied to strengthen the hose, or damaged connectors might need to be replaced or adjusted.
Circuit Breaker Water Heater Repair
Water heater circuit breaker repair can cost anywhere from $100 to $225. Circuit breakers are needed for electric water heaters. It's uncommon for issues to arise directly with the breaker itself, but fuse or wiring issues could cause the circuit breaker to get tripped by the water heater. A technician may need to inspect the fuses, wiring, and connectors and make necessary adjustments to get the heater working again.
Hot Water Tank Repair
Homeowners can expect to pay between $250 and $1,000 for water heater tank repairs. The tank is the part of the heater that stores hot water, ready to be used throughout the home. Tanks are present in both tank and storage models. They're made from very tough materials, but tanks can get damaged, dented, or cracked. So, they may need to be patched up to prevent leaks.
Hot Water Cylinder Repair
Repairing a water heater cylinder should cost between $250 and $1,000, depending on the nature of the damage and how easily accessible the cylinder is. The terms cylinder and tank are used interchangeably. Cylinders may leak, crack, dent, or get clogged over time due to mineral or sediment buildup inside them, meaning they may need patching or flushing.
Water Heater Repair Cost by Type of Replacement
In some cases, the damaged or broken parts of your water heater may be beyond repair, so they will have to be replaced with new ones. The cost of getting replacement parts varies depending on the part and the amount of work required to install it. The table below shows some common water heater parts, which might need replacing, along with average costs for each.
|Type of Replacement||Average Costs (Labor Included)|
|Fuse||$50 - $75|
|Pilot Light||$75 - $150|
|Thermostat||$100 - $250|
|Dip Tube||$100 - $250|
|Valve||$100 - $300|
|Anode Rod||$125 - $300|
|Thermocouple||$150 - $325|
|Element||$200 - $750|
|Coil||$200 - $750|
|Pump||$350 - $800|
|Tank||$600 - $2,000|
Water Heater Fuse Replacement
If you need to replace a water heater fuse, you’ll pay between $50 and $75. Water heaters can have fuses in the main electrical panel or separate fuses in circuit breaker boxes. Fuses can blow, or the breaker can get tripped due to issues with the heater. If this happens, the fuse needs to be replaced. The breaker might also require fixing, or another part of the heater might have to be replaced.
Water Heater Pilot Light Replacement
Replacing the pilot light in a water heater should cost between $75 and $150. The pilot light might go out for various reasons on your gas water heater. It’s rare for a heater to require a full replacement of the pilot light assembly. However, if the assembly is damaged, worn, or rusted, a new one might be necessary.
Water Heater Thermostat Replacement
Getting a replacement thermostat fitted in your water heater should cost between $100 and $250. Thermostats break down for various reasons, including technical defects, old age, and improper installation. Replacement thermostats are inexpensive and easy to install. The whole process can usually be completed in under an hour.
Water Heater Dip Tube Replacement
Replacing a dip tube in your water heater should cost between $100 and $250. The dip tube is the part of the water heater that directs cold water towards the bottom of the tank so that it doesn't interfere with the hot water at the top. When dip tubes break, the hot water runs out very quickly. These tubes may break naturally due to general wear and tear or corrosion.
Water Heater Valve Replacement
Getting a valve replaced on your water heater should cost between $100 and $300. The exact price you pay depends on the type of heater you have, the type of valve in question, and how easy the valve is to access. Some require a little more work than others. The table below shows some different water heater valves and average replacement costs, including parts and labor.
|Type of Valve||Average Costs (Labor Included)|
|Shut-Off||$100 - $200|
|Drain||$100 - $200|
|Pressure Relief||$100 - $250|
|Gas||$150 - $300|
Water Heater Shut-Off Valve Replacement Cost
Replacing a shut-off valve for your water heater should cost between $100 and $200. This valve is responsible for shutting off the water or gas supply to the heater. This very important valve must be used in emergency situations, such as if the heater is leaking or the tank is cracked. Like other valves, they can wear out over time and with repeated use.
Water Heater Drain Valve Replacement Cost
Replacing the drain valve on a water heater should cost between $100 and $200. The drain valve is used to drain the tank and can be very important for general water heater maintenance. However, over time and with repeated use, it can wear out. It might start leaking just after you drain the heater and will need to be replaced.
Water Heater Pressure Relief Valve Replacement Cost
Getting the pressure relief valve of your water heater replaced should cost around $100 to $250. The pressure relief valve, also known as the pressure regulator valve, controls the pressure inside the water heater system. You can adjust this valve to control the pressure and prevent it from getting too high or low. Like other valves, it can crack, leak, or stop working as it gets older. A faulty pressure relief valve could put the whole system at risk of explosion, so it's vital to replace this valve if you encounter any pressure issues with your water heater tank.
Water Heater Gas Valve Replacement Cost
Replacing a gas valve on a water heater costs between $150 and $300. The gas valve is the same as the control valve, and these two terms can be used interchangeably. So, if you have a gas heater, it’s important to ensure that the gas valve remains stable and in good condition to avoid any leaks or dangerous situations.
Replace the Anode Rod in a Water Heater
Homeowners will pay between $125 and $300 to replace the anode rod in a water heater. The anode rod is a very important part of the water heater. It helps to preserve the life of the tank and other components by attracting corrosive elements. Naturally, since the job of an anode rod is to attract corrosion, it tends to wear out over time and requires replacing every few years.
Replace the Thermocouple on a Water Heater
Replacing the thermocouple in a water heater should cost between $150 and $325. The thermocouple is an integral part of gas water heaters. It works by monitoring the heat of the pilot light and then allowing gas to flow through to the burner to heat the water. The thermocouple can wear down over time and interfere with the functionality of the pilot light.
Water Heater Element Replacement
Homeowners can expect to pay between $200 and $750 to replace a heating element in a water heater. Heating elements are present in electric water heaters and work to heat the water. If they start to fail, the water might not heat correctly, and the homeowner will have to cope without any hot water. So, it’s vital to get heater elements replaced as quickly as possible.
Water Heater Coil Replacement
To replace a water heater coil, you’ll have to pay between $200 and $750. The coil is essentially the same thing as the heating element. It appears in electric water heaters and may be present in solar water heater systems as well. Water heater coils corrode and wear down over time as the water heater is used.
Water Heater Pump Replacement
Replacing the pump in your water heater can cost anywhere from $350 to $800. Pumps are mainly used in solar water heaters and heaters with recirculating systems. They don't feature in every water heater but can be very important in certain systems, helping to push water out of the tank to the radiators and pipes. They wear down and suffer faults and defects due to age.
Water Heater Tank Replacement
Replacing a water heater tank can cost anywhere from $600 and $2,000. This is one of the most expensive kinds of tank repair you might need to have. In some cases, the costs are so high that it's a better value to get a new heater installed instead. If tanks get corroded on the inside, they usually need to be replaced. There's no way to undo corrosive damage. They might also need replacing if they've gotten cracked or damaged beyond feasible repair.
Water Heater Repair Cost by Type of Problem
Many different issues can arise with a water heater. You might not know which part is to blame or which component needs fixing or replacing right away. You may simply notice a leak or strange noises coming from part of the water heater, or you might suddenly find that your home has no hot water. The table below shows some common water heater problems and the average repair costs for each one.
|Type of Problem||Average Repair Costs (Labor Included)|
|No Power||$50 - $400|
|Leak||$50 - $600|
|Too Much Pressure||$75 - $350|
|Low Pressure||$75 - $500|
|Backdraft||$100 - $500|
|Losing Heat||$100 - $750|
|Clogged||$150 - $400|
|Scaling||$150 - $450|
|Noise||$150 - $600|
|Frozen Pipes||$200 - $550|
|Bad Smell||$200 - $600|
|Rust||$200 - $2,000|
The Water Heater Is Not Getting Power
Fixing a water heater that is not getting power can cost $50 to $400 to fix. Various issues could be to blame for this particular situation. It might just be that the fuse has blown, and you need a new one, or the circuit breaker might require some repair. It could also be an issue with the wiring and connectors leading to the water heater system itself, which may be more complicated and costly to repair.
Water Heater Leak Repair
Fixing a leaking water heater costs from $50 to $600, depending on the nature and severity of the leak. Some leaks are quite minor and might only be caused by valves that need a little tightening or some Teflon tape. Others can be caused by holes or cracks in the tank and require more serious repair work.
Too Much Pressure in the Water Heater
Fixing a water heater that has too much pressure can cost between $75 and $350. It's possible that one of the valves simply needs adjusting to let out some pressure. The system may need to be drained to alleviate the pressure, which can be done quite simply and cheaply. However, you might also need new valves or a new regulator to control the pressure if your current regulator has failed.
Low Pressure Water Heater
Fixing a water heater that has very low pressure can cost between $75 and $500. The reduction in pressure might be caused by a simple issue with the valves or regulator, which could just need a little adjusting to be repaired. However, low pressure might also be caused by issues inside the tank with sediment and mineral deposits. So, the tank might need flushing and cleaning.
Water Heater Backdraft Repair
Fixing a water heater with a backdraft problem can cost between $100 and $500. Backdrafting is when the gases from the water heater are emitted into the surrounding area inside the house, rather than going outside via a vent. These gases can be dangerous and may include carbon dioxide, so it's vital to fix the issue. You might need to get new valves fitted, a new draft hood, or even new venting to get the gases out.
The Water Heater Is Losing Heat
Fixing a water heater that is losing heat quickly costs between $100 and $750, depending on the nature of the problem. This issue is likely being caused by the dip tube, which might need replacing. It could also be caused by issues with the thermocouple or pilot light in a gas heater. Or it might be the heating element or coil that needs to be replaced.
Clogged Water Heater
Fixing a clogged water heater typically costs between $150 and $400. Water heaters can get clogged because of various reasons, including mineral build-ups and sediment in the tank. To fix this problem, a professional may need to remove the drain valve and deal with whatever is clogging the system by flushing it out.
Scaling Water Heater
Homeowners should expect to pay between $150 and $450 to deal with scaling in their water heater. If your home has hard water that is rich in minerals, the mineral deposits may form on the inside of the tank, leading to scaly buildups that make the whole system less efficient and more prone to breaking down. The usual method to deal with this problem is to flush the system.
The Water Heater Is Making Noise
Fixing a water heater that is making strange sounds can cost between $150 and $600. Various noises may be heard from your heater, and they can have different causes. Rumbling sounds can be caused by sediment or mineral buildups. Hissing sounds can indicate leaks. So, the repair costs you pay will depend on the type of sound.
Fixing Frozen Pipes in Water Heater
Fixing frozen pipes leading to your water heater can cost between $200 and $550. Frozen pipes can be a very serious issue. You'll need to turn off the water supply valve while the repairs are made. The frozen pipes need to be thawed gradually and with great care. New insulation may need to be applied to prevent future frost damage.
Water Heater Smells Bad
If your water heater smells bad, you may need to spend between $200 and $600 to get it fixed. The bad smell is likely caused by hydrogen sulfide. This produces a rotten egg smell around the tank. It's usually caused by bacteria or corrosion in the system. The tank might need to be flushed, and you may need a new anode rod as well.
Rusted Water Heater
Fixing a water heater with rust costs from $200 to $2,000. When you see rust on the heater or rusty water coming from your faucets, it's a sign that you might need to get a full water heater replacement. Once rust develops in the tank, it's impossible to fix, so you might need a whole new tank. Rust may be more localized just around the valves, which can be replaced with fresh ones.
Water Heater Repair Cost by Brand
Many different brands and manufacturers of water heaters are available on the market. Some brands produce high-end heaters, while others offer more budget-friendly, affordable models. The cost of your water heater repairs can be affected by the brand of water heater you choose. Some brands use more expensive parts. The table below shows some popular water heater brands, along with average repair costs for each one.
|Brand||Average Repair Costs (Labor Included)|
|Whirlpool||$100 - $550|
|GE||$100 - $750|
|Kenmore||$150 - $600|
|A.O. Smith||$150 - $650|
|Rheem||$175 - $700|
|Rinnai||$175 - $725|
|Bradford White||$200 - $750|
Whirlpool Water Heater Repair
For Whirlpool water heater repairs, homeowners can expect to pay between $100 and $550. Whirlpool is a popular home appliance provider, offering a range of gas, electric, and propane water heaters for commercial use. Many Whirlpool models are quite budget-friendly. The average repair costs for this brand tend to be relatively low compared to others.
GE Water Heater Repair
You can expect to pay between $100 and $750 when getting a GE water heater repaired. This wide price range is because GE offers a varied range of water heaters, including some affordable, traditional electric tank heaters and more expensive solar water heaters that can be costly to fix if something goes wrong.
Kenmore Water Heater Repair
Homeowners will pay between $150 and $600 for Kenmore water heater repairs. Kenmore offers a range of electric and gas water heaters at varying prices. This company is regarded as a mid-range brand, with fairly average repair and replacement prices for homeowners if any issues arise or if any parts need replacing.
AO Smith Water Heater Repair
The average repair costs for A.O. Smith water heaters are between $150 and $650. A.O. Smith is the biggest manufacturer of water heaters in North America. Many American homes feature A.O. Smith water heaters. It's often regarded as one of the best choices for gas water heaters, offering a good range of affordable, mid-range models.
Rheem Water Heater Repair
Rheem water heater repairs usually cost between $175 and $700. Rheem is one of the most trusted names in the water heater industry, offering some of the most advanced water heaters, including tankless models, eco-friendly tank heaters, and hybrid water heaters. Repair costs can be a little higher than average with this brand due to the quality of its parts and heaters.
Rinnai Water Heater Repair
It should cost between $175 and $725 to get a Rinnai water heater repaired by a professional. Rinnai is a Japanese company that focuses primarily on gas water heaters. It offers some of the best-selling tankless water heater models in the U.S., along with some hybrid models. The cost to repair Rinnai heaters can be quite high due to the quality of the parts required.
Bradford White Water Heater Repair
You’ll pay between $200 and $750 for Bradford White water heater repairs. Bradford White is a leading water heater company based in Pennsylvania, offering mid to high-end water heaters for residential and commercial use. This company’s water heaters are regarded as very durable and reliable, but repair bills can be quite high when issues occur.
Labor Cost Water Heater Repair
When something goes wrong with a water heater, it’s usually best to call in a professional. You can contact a plumber, a specialized water heater repair company, or a handyman with experience with water heaters to deal with most problems. Professionals may charge by the hour, at the rate of $50 to $150 per hour for their services. Or they might charge based on the nature of the required repair work. They may also have a call-out fee of around $50, which can be waived if you hire them to carry out the repairs. Some may charge extra if you live far away, requiring a long drive to get to your home.
Emergency Water Heater Repair
Some situations may arise where you need to get your water heater repaired very urgently. For example, if the tank has cracked and is leaking water over the floor or if the heater has stopped working and you have to live without any hot water in the home. In this case, plumbers and repair companies might charge extra to prioritize your repairs. You can expect to pay between $100 and $200 in extra charges for urgent repairs.
Water Heater Maintenance
A good way to extend the lifespan of your current water heater and reduce the risk of having to pay for any repairs or replacements in the first place is to maintain it. Homeowners can employ many different ways to keep their water heaters in good condition.
To start, you should regularly test the pressure relief valve. This is usually situated on the top or side of the heater. All you need to do is lift the lever on the valve to test that it's working. Be sure to put a bucket under the discharge pipe to catch any water that comes out.
You can also consider draining the tank regularly if you have a tank heater. To do this, prepare a bucket or container and then open the drain valve gently to let the water flow out. This drains excess sediment out of the tank, helping to extend its life and make the whole system more efficient.
You may also want to invest in insulation around the tank and pipes. You can use foam insulation around the pipes and insulating blankets around the valves and tank itself. This makes the system more efficient and reduces the need for it to work too hard to heat your water.
It’s also wise to simply check up on your water heater regularly. Many models have lights that illuminate if something is wrong, and dials and valves you can check for any issues. You should turn off the heater completely if you plan to leave the home for a while on vacation too.
Many of these maintenance tasks can be done by the homeowner. It is possible to call in a professional and have them carry out simple inspections, check your heater, flush the tank, and clean the system. Expect to pay $100 to $250 for this service.
Repair vs Replace a Water Heater
In some situations, especially when faced with a big water heater problem, you might find yourself hesitating between getting the heater repaired or replacing it with a new one. Most water heaters last around eight to ten years. If your unit is getting old, the time might be right to replace it. Otherwise, you could find that more and more issues occur, and you’ll have to keep paying for repairs and replacements. On younger heaters, however, getting repairs might be the better choice.
Getting a new heater should cost between $600 and $1,500. If you get a repair bill quoted at $1,000 or more, a replacement heater might seem like the best value choice. A new model might even save you money on your utility bills too. However, you will have to wait longer to get a new heater fitted. You may have to pay extra if you’re switching to a different type of heater or need extra work done during installation.
Enhancement and Improvement Costs
Water Heater Earthquake Straps
In some states and areas with a risk of earthquakes, the local plumbing codes state that water heaters should be fitted with earthquake straps to hold them in position and prevent them from toppling over if any earthquakes occur. Heavy-duty straps should be used. You can buy and install strap kits yourself or get a licensed plumber to do it for you for around $100 to $200, including parts and labor.
Homeowners who worry about leaks and floods caused by their water heaters may want to invest in a leak detection system. Little leak detector gadgets can be fitted near the water heater and emit loud alarm noises if they detect any leaks. Some models can even be connected to your Wi-Fi system and let you know about leaks even when you aren't home. Prices vary from $25 to $200
Additional Considerations and Costs
- Warranty. Most water heater brands come with a warranty lasting between 6 and 12 years. The warranty usually covers both the tank and any replacement parts that might be required. Most manufacturers also offer a one- or two-year labor warranty. Check your heater's warranty policy if any issues occur because you might be able to claim on the warranty and pay less for repairs.
- Licenses. It’s always best to hire a licensed plumber when in need of water heater repairs. Unlicensed workers may not have the qualifications or experience necessary and could make the problem worse.
- DIY. You may be able to carry out some simple maintenance of your water heater on your own with DIY tutorials and guides. For example, homeowners can flush the system to drain out sediment or install an insulating blanket around the tank. But for most repairs and issues, it’s best to contact a professional as water heaters are quite complex appliances. It’s easy for things to go wrong if any mistakes are made.
- Lifespan. Water heaters are expected to last for eight to ten years.
- Disposal. If you need to have an old water heater removed, you may need to pay a disposal fee. You can get a plumber or repair company to dispose of it for you for around $25 to $50, or you can take it to a local recycling center yourself.
- What causes hot water to stop working?
Many issues could cause a water heater to stop working. There may be a leak, broken heating elements, faulty valves, a malfunctioning thermostat, or other issues.
- Who can fix a water heater?
Licensed plumbers are the best people to contact when you need to get a water heater fixed. There are also specialist water heater repair companies.
- Why do I suddenly have no hot water?
There could be various causes. It might be an issue with the heating elements in your electric heater or the burner in your gas heater. Thermostat problems, leaks, or valve issues could also be to blame.
- Should you flush an old water heater?
Yes, water heaters should be flushed once a year. This removes excess sediment and extends the life of the water heater.
- Why does my hot water only last five minutes?
There are a few possible causes for this. It might be a faulty thermostat, or you might need the dip tube replaced.
- Why is my shower water cold but sink hot?
Your shower mixing valve likely needs replacing, or some other part of the shower system or plumbing needs repair or replacement. This issue may not be connected to your water heater.
The information provided by our cost guides comes from a great variety of sources. For more information, read our Methodology and sources.